Cern

CERN stands for "Centre European countries ‘n de Recherché this means the European Organisation for Nuclear Exploration. Following the 2nd World War, many intercontinental organisations were evolving during which Raoul Dautry, Pierre Auger and Lew Kowarski from France, Edoardo Amaldi from Italy and Niels Bohr from Denmark designed to build an Atomic Physics Laboratory. After many intergovernal appointment and conventions, on 29 September 1954, it arrived formally in existence.

CERN’s main place is high strength physics researches. It provides particle accelerators for nuclear physics experiments. After 1954, there’s been several researches and evolvements at CERN and is normally continuing its contribution to science and technology. The primary aim of CERN is,

  • Exploration: Solving the mysteries of the Universe
  • Technology: Developing brand-new technologies.
  • Collaborating: Uniting the countries through science.
  • Education: Providing trainings and analysis platforms for future scientists.

(CERN, 2008)

2. WWW

In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist in CERN wrote a proposal to develop a distributed information system for the laboratory. His boss commented the idea to be vague but exciting. After those words and phrases the way info was for beginners inquiring how to write a high school essay transmitted revolutionised. By 1990, Tim had described the Web’s basic concepts of URL, HTTP and HTML and in addition wrote the first web browser http://info.cern.ch and server application. The WWW was created. (CERN, 2008)

3. Development of WWW

After the successful procedure on the multi-platform computer system network at the CERN laboratories in August 1991 CERN data files "alt.hypertext" was built accessible to the public. During the time all of the coded programmes were placed in a computer system in CERN known as the "Web Server" because it interconnects with the HTML documents. There was only 1 net server located at CERN.Gradually from then on www commenced to spread throughout the world specially universities and exploration labs.

YEAR

WEB SERVER

1991

1

1992

50

1999

720,000

2001

24 million+

2010

240 million+

Source: http://www.netcraft.co.uk/survey

During 1993, Marc Andreessen, University scholar at the University of Illinois led a team that created the Graphical INTERFACE (GUI) web browser called "Mosaic". Later, Mosaic was released for House windows and Macintosh platforms to set up it.Popularity of the Graphical internet browser that made persons without computer awareness likely to employ www by navigating and pointing. (Gribble C, 2009)

4. Internet

The internet is a worldwide system of interconnected computers, having capability to provide transparent, self-organising, interoperability among large numbers of diverse networks, host computer and application. (Dimensioning the web, 1998)

5. Internet History

The idea of creating a global network was believed by three pioneers and a meeting where they developed a thought of publicly accessible computer system network connecting many smaller networks around the globe to share the information. Among these pioneers, Vannevar Bush offered a concept of potential uses of it through his library system. Norbert Wiener developed the Cybernetics which encouraged many developers to focus on the options from the It all and Marshall McLuhan produced the whole concept of interconnected computer system popular. Finally the conference of Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence in 1956 approved the idea and realised the stride improvement of technology.

In 1957 the first satellite, Sputnik I premiered by the Soviet Union. This satellite television could have an impact on US by the area based nuclear attack. Accordingly to avoid this US federal government was forced to build a company that mandates this kind of foreign attack. Therefore US formed Advance Research Project Firm (ARPA).This organisation was primarily created to help defend US against the assault through constant effective connection.JCR Licklider, brain of Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) centered within the ARPA focused on the benefits associated with a nationwide connection network. During the process he employed Lawrence Roberts to implement in his eyesight.

Lawrence Roberts resulted in the creation of the network. After couple of years a special computer called an "Interface Message Processor" originated to comprehend the look and in October 1969, network referred to as ARPANET was up and running which was later known as CSNET.This network in that case connected all the universities in the us and was later likewise linked to the EUNet.This was the European network to connect the research facilities in Europe. After the Internet went global, US government had to transfer the administration to an independent authority in 1995. (Internet site 1, Ruthfield S 1995)

6. Internet: Its Uses

Internet has manufactured the world into a global village. It uses has got been tremendously grown since its launch. With millions of user worldwide posting and publishing details, it’s making more data available, producing more results and interacting easier.

Information

"Internet" and "www" is certainly sometime misinterpreted as a synonym term where as they are totally different. Internet is like hardware of computer which provides application like www to focus on it. World Wide Web is a global group of images, documents and various other means logically inter related by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Learning resource Identifiers (URI).

The internet has enabled individuals and organisation to create facts on such a platform where large numbers of users can get access to it.Millions of user posting information world-wide makes internet the biggest database of info and easiest path to use it.Search Engines like "Google", "Bing", "Yahoo", "Ask Jeeves" has made it even more better to search for information in the web. They are designed to search for information online. By just providing the word for the needed data it searches the entire database in the kind of webpages, pictures, videos, or data files. Information such as for example news, product facts, maps, weather can be easily retrieved by a single mouse click. Publishing and maintaining web logs (blogs) can be widely used recently due to the simpleness and zero cost to create. It is like a diary which can be conveniently accessed by anyone from anywhere. Users may also build up and take part in discussion forums according to interest and express one’s thought as so when and nevertheless he/she wishes. Almost every site provides a weblog page to help make the consumers and internet users provide their honest perspective easily. So much various information on the net and in within the reach has allowed decentralisation of the information. Retrieval of data from web is certainly quicker, easier and also saves great deal of time compared to encyclopaedias and older fashioned libraries.

Communication

Communication is another spot where the internet is frequently used. It is utilized in the type of emails, chat, video conference and voice calls. The internet has shown us new ways of communicating and has taken communication to a complete new level. For numerous reasons such as its low cost, simplicity and accessibility it is getting high attention.

Among the all email is an important communication service obtainable. It allows customer to mail mail electronically with a valid email address to any different valid email via the internet. It is usually read from any laptop connected to the internet. User can also attach files like pics, documents, sound and video with the email. Email has made data transfer and retrieval so easier. Email gets delivered to the recipient within minutes therefore there is absolutely no waiting for the post to get delivered no worries of getting rid of it. (Folger L, 1997)

The next most sensible thing to email can be chatting, Chat service allows

user to really have a live chat with each other or an organization. Chat can be used in persons or as a firm to pass the message. Many suppliers like Microsoft and Yahoo delivers these features in their website itself for free. (Folger L, 1997)

Another way of communicating via the internet is Voice over Net Process (VoIP).This technology is used to transfer tone of voice and packet switched networks on the internet. The technology offers ability to transmit more than one mobile call over the same broadband interconnection. VoIP enables conference calling, call up forwarding and many other features which usual telephone has in practically zero cost. So, only with the internet, microphone and web-camera one can call anyone anywhere combined with the video call. (Harris S and Hansen A good, ND)

Social Networking

Social networking may be the grouping of individuals into specific organizations like small rural communities or a neighbourhood subdivision, if you will. Although social media is possible personally especially in the workplace, universities and high academic institutions, it really is most popular online. This is due to unlike most high schools, colleges or workplace, net is filled with the millions of individuals who are looking to meet other people to get first-hand data and experiences about a variety of topics. (Dark brown K, ND)

The internet has enabled completely new way of getting together with people through social media. Social sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Bebo provides platform to connect many friends and interact with them which wouldn’t have already been possible without the internet. It includes visiting other profile pages, commenting or posting feeds, uploading pictures and video clips. These varieties of sites possess united many friends and groups within the socialisation. On the other hand, it will be arises less face to face interaction plus some minor identity thefts. Lately such social sites also have helped raising recognition to the people.

E-Shopping

The most recent but now an extremely common and frequent use of the internet is buying and selling online. E-marketing is quite popular for most reasons. One good reason is that it takes only a fraction of the price tag on advertising through other channel like newspaper and television set. Also it has been found that it can reach a far greater consumers based in the web. E-shopping is also very popular because it can be done how to write a history essay: get a ready-made answer! sitting in a room. Even if someone must sell their products they don’t really need to open a shop. May be due to this easiness E-shopping is now an increasing number of popular. (Folger L, 1997)

7. Future

Out of the 6.7 billion human population 1.7 billion of the populace is equipped with or has access to internet. This is a rise of 380.3% in comparison to that of year 2000.The statistics clearly shows the tempo of Internet’s popularity in our midst people. (Internet World Stats, 2009)

Technology is usually evolving. The acceleration which internet developed in the past was so swift it is very likely it will continue its pace in the foreseeable future.So,what lies in the future for net and what can users expect? The web connects world at the present time but is it possible to go further than that? "Internet is going off world."(Dr.Cerf V).A robot is being deployed to North Pole of Mars holding communication protocol that may eventually cause inter planetary expansion of the internet. Many high-tech innovations such as virtual reality and IP-TV have previously become possible in lots of areas. For instance, some medical corporations have successfully demonstrated digital surgery from a digital flesh. Various websites broadcasts live video through internet process (IP) and also allow user to share video lessons peer to peer (p2p).

Most significantly, internet is going mobile later on. Having said that it is already available in virtually all countries with cellular phone facilities but in near future mobile net will play a major component in the. From weighty machines, internet will be accessible to all or any possible handhelds and mobile devices. The internet will be accessible everywhere, anytime in a broader band. That means the speed of the net will be high. For example, time to hear music will be much higher than to actually download it.

"We are bringing the pc from the two-dimensional ‘desktop’ metaphor and making it a 3D ‘shopping mall’ style of conversation." (Tom Defanti, ND). This statement evidently suggests where in fact the internet is heading down the road. A 3D interaction allows Internet users to maintain any geographical region without actually getting out of their room. It will allow performing multi activity in virtual 3D environment just just as in real environment.

"Besides the development of net itself, there is also a fear of enslavement by our own creations. Rapid production will eventually lead devices to be intelligent, evolve speedily and finish up treating us like domestic pets." (Saffo P, ND) There is also strong possibility the facial skin interaction will be forget about in existence. Even at the moment, people spend so enough time interacting through the internet; there will be time when persons will be only getting together with artificially produced stimuli.

The development of early forms of networked conversation, the telegraph, radio, telephone, television to the web, communication has come quite a distance. Prediction made during the 90s is usually overachieved by 2010.Therefore it will not be surprising if the present prediction comes to reality in future. Concepts like virtual good friend, biometric identity and capability of a machine to download human brain is very daunting. All the developments could possibly be for the advantage of individual if the governing body system let it remain like this, if not the globe will be no more better destination to live than it is today.( Janna Quitney Anderson,2006)

8. Reference

  • ü IEEE Internet Processing, (1998) Interview: Dan Connolly on the architect of the net, Vol 2,#2 2, March-April, pp. 24-25

    ü IEEE Internet Computing, (1998)Dimensioning the Internet ,Vol 2,#2 2, March-April,p8

    ü Janna Quitney Anderson, (2006) The future of the web II, Elon University

    Lee Rainie

    ü Web conversation(2008), 1954: foundations for European research[online], CERN,available at; http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/about/History54-en.html ,accessed on 26/03/10

    ü Web communication(2008), 1990: Tim Berners-Lee invents the net [online], CERN, available at http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/about/History90-en.html ,accessed on 26/03/10

    ü Cheryl Gribble(2009), History of the net; Start at CERN [online],hitmill.com, available http://www.hitmill.com/internet/web_history.html, accessed on 27/03/10

    ü Web Server Study,WSS(2010),March 2010 Web Server Survey[online],WSS,available,http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2010/03/17/march_2010_web_server_survey.html accessed on 27/03/10

    ü Steve Crocker(2007),Internet History [online],livinginternet.com ,offered by http://www.livinginternet.com/tindex_i.htm , accessed on 28/03/10

    ü Steve Crocker(2007),Internet History, One webpage Summary [online],livinginternet.com ,offered by http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii_summary.htm , accessed on 28/03/10

    ü Harris S and Hansen A,A general public Net[online],National Technology Foundation, offered by http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/internet/publicnet.htm accessed on 28/03/10

    ü Internet Community Stats(2009), Internet Utilization Statistic[online],offered by http://www.Internetworldstats.com/stats.htm accessed on 28/03/10

    ü Folger L(1997),Common Uses of Net[online],available at http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/internet-communication.html accessed on 29/03/2010

    ü http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/uses-of-the-internet.html

    ü Folger L(1997),Internet Communication[online],offered by http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/internet-communication.html accessed on 29/03/2010

    ü Folger L(1997),What’s VoIP?[online],available at http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/VOIP.html accessed on 29/03/2010

    ü Brown K,What’s Social Networking?[online].Karen Brown, offered by http://www.whatissocialnetworking.com/ accessed on 29/03/2010

    ü Harris S and Hansen A, Expectation online of Tomorrow[online],Nationwide Science Foundation, offered by http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/internet/expectation.htm accessed on 28/03/10

    ü BBC (2006),Internet’s future in 2020 debated[online],BBC,available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/5370688.stm accessed on 29/03/10

  • Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *